Special Feature: Sports Health


Sports health glossary

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Monday, March, 17 By Northeast Rehab Health Network




Abdomen: the part of the body that contains the stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, appendix, gallbladder, and bladder.

Abdominal: front or anterior of trunk below ribs

Abduction: movement away from the midline of the body

Acromioclavicular: Joint of the shoulder where acromion process of the scapula and the distal end of the clavicle meet; most shoulder separations occur at this point.

Acute: sudden, brief, and severe.

Anterior: In front of; the front surface of.

Anterior talo-fibular ligament: The ligament that connects the talus to the fibula and is the first injured when an inversion ankle sprain occurs


Baker’s Cyst: Localized swelling in the posterior knee as a result of fluid that has escaped from the knee capsule. A Baker's cyst indicates that there is a trauma inside the knee joint that leads to excessive fluid production.

Bennett's Fracture: A fracture and dislocation of the base of the first metacarpal, the thumb.

Biceps: A two part muscles that flexes the elbow, turns the palm up and flexes the shoulder. Often referred to as the “fifth” rotator cuff muscle

Blowout Fracture: A fracture of the cavity containing the eyeball and its associated muscles that can be a result of a direct blow to the eye or cheek.

Bone Scan: An imaging procedure in which a radioactive-labeled substance is injected into the body to determine the status of a bony injury. If the bone at a discrete injury site takes up the radioactive substance, the injury will show as a "hot spot" on the scan image. The bone scan is particularly useful in the diagnosis of stress fractures.

Brachial Plexus: Network of nerves originating from the cervical vertebrae, which then supply the shoulder, arm, hand and fingers.

Bruise: A discoloration of the skin due to leakage of blood into the underlying tissues.

Bursa: A fluid-filled sac that is located in areas where friction is likely to occur, then minimizes the friction; for example between a tendon and a bone.


Calcaneofibular Ligament: located on the outside of the ankle it is a ligament that connects the fibula to the calcaneus.

Calcaneus: bone that forms your heel and connects to the talus to form the subtalar joint

Calf: Large muscle group located at the back of the shin that includes the gastrocnemius and the soleus muscles and is connected to the heel by the Achilles tendon.

Capsule: An enclosing structure that surrounds the joint and contains ligaments, which stabilize that joint.

Cartilage: Smooth, slippery tissue coating the ends of bones that form a joint thus decreasing friction between the bones.

CAT Scan: An imaging technique that uses a computer to organize the information from multiple x-ray views and construct a cross-sectional image of areas inside the body. Also called computerized axial tomography (CAT) or CT scan.

Cellulitis: Inflammation of cellular or connective tissue.

Cervical Spine:
Group of seven vertebrae that form the neck
Cervical Vertebrae: Group of seven vertebrae that form the neck.

Charley Horse: A contusion or bruise to any muscle resulting in intramuscular bleeding.

Chondral Fracture: Fracture to the chondral (cartilage) surfaces of bone.

Chondromalacia: Roughening and softening of articular cartilage. Best known for the roughening of the underside of the patella,

Chronic: Of long duration, often years; recurring; opposite of Acute.

Clavicle: The collarbone.

Coccyx: The "tail bone;" a group of four vertebrae that are fused together, located at the lower end of the spine.

Collagen: Strong, fibrous substance that gives ligaments, tendon and other connective tissue their strength when loaded

Collateral Ligament: On either side of a hinge joint, as of the elbow, knee and wrist.

Colles Fracture: A fracture of the distal end of the radius with the lower end being displaced backward.

Compartment Syndrome: A build up of pressure in fascial compartments that contain muscles.

Complex Carbohydrate: A substance that contains several sugar units linked together, such as starch.

Computed Tomography (CT): Method of visualizing the body's soft tissues. Using x-rays with the beam passing repeatedly through the body part, the CT scans while a computer calculates tissue absorption at each point scanned.

Concentric Muscle Action: A shortening of the muscle as it develops tension and contracts to move a resistance.

Concussion: Jarring injury of the brain resulting in a mild traumatic brain injury. Symptoms can range from seconds to life long with participation in activity avoided until symptom free for 7 days

Existing at birth; to be born with.

Connective Tissue: A material consisting of fibers that form a framework that provides support structure for body tissues.

Contract: Muscle action that may concentric, eccentric or isometric.

Contractures: Abnormal, usually permanent shortening of a muscle due to atrophy, immobilization, extensive scar tissue over a joint, or other factors.

Contusion: An injury caused by a blow from a blunt object, typically resulting in a bruise.

Coracoclavicular Ligament: The ligament that joins the coracoid process of the scapula and the outer end of the clavicle. It forms the front half of the roof over the rotator cuff.

Coronary Artery Disease: Narrowing or blockage of one or more of the coronary arteries resulting in decreased blood supply to the heart (ischemia). Also called Ischemic Heart Disease.

Coronary Disease: Damage to the heart when insufficient blood flows through the vessels because they are blocked with fat or have become thick and hard; this harms the muscles of the heart.

Cortical Steroids: Used to suppress tissue inflammation.

Cortisol: The major natural glucocorticoid (GC) in humans. It is the primary stress hormone

Cortisone: A steroid that is used to treat many autoimmune or inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis.

Costochondral: Cartilage that connects the sternum with the rib cage.

CPM: Continuous passive motion devices used in the early stage of joint rehabilitation to prevent contractures.

CPR: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Combined artificial ventilation and cardiac compressions to stabilize a person until medical care arrives whose heart and breathing have stopped and who is unconscious.

Cramps: A painful, involuntary contraction.

Cranium: Bony framework of the skull consisting of eight cranial bones, 14 bones of the face and the teeth.

Cruciate: A cross or "X" shape. There are two cruciate ligaments in the human knee.

Cryotherapy: A treatment with use of cold.

Cyst: Abnormal sac containing liquid or semi-solid matter.


Debridement: Removal of non-healthy tissues and foreign material from a wound or burn to prevent infection and permit healing.

Degenerative Disc Disease: The degenerative process by which an intervertebral disc becomes progressively weaker and thinner and fails in its functions.

Degenerative Joint Disease: Changes in the cartilage joint surfaces as a result of excessive overuse or under use.

Dehydration: A lack of an adequate amount of fluid in the body. may be accompanied by dry mouth, thirst, constipation, concentrated urine or fever. Dehydration occurs when a person's body water content has decreased to a dangerously low level. Water accounts for 60% of a man's weight and 50% of a woman's. Dehydration begins before thirst begins

Deltoid Ligament: Ligament that connects the tibia to bones of the medial aspect of the foot and is primarily responsible for stability of the ankle on the medial side. Is sprained less frequently than other ankle ligaments.

Deltoid Muscle: Muscles at top of the arm, just below the shoulder, responsible for shoulder motions of flexion, extension and abduction.

Diagnosis: Identification of a disease or disorder by a physician.

Diaphragm Muscle: The thin muscular partition below the lungs and heart that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity.

Diastole: Period during the heart cycle in which the muscle relaxes, followed by contraction (systole). In a blood pressure reading, the lower number is the diastolic measurement.

Diastolic Blood Pressure: The pressure of the blood in the main arteries, which rises and falls as the muscles of the body cope with varying demands (e.g. exercise, stress, sleep). There are two types of pressure that are measured: 1) systolic pressure, created by the contraction of the heart muscle pushing blood into the vessels, and 2) diastolic pressure, when the heart is at rest between beats. A reading of 120/80 is said to be the normal range. Blood pressure that is too high (hypertension) can cause health problems such as heart attacks and strokes.

Dilate: To expand or open a structure such as the pupil of the eye or a passageway such as an artery.

Dilated: Enlarged (as in pupils).

Disc, Intervertebral: A flat, rounded plate between each vertebrae of the spine. The disc consists of a thick fiber ring (annulus), which surrounds a soft gel-like interior (nucleus). It functions as a cushion and shock absorber for the spinal column while dictate the amount of motion available.

Dislocation: Complete displacement of joint surfaces.

Distal: Term referencing further from the center or middle; for example, the hand is distal to the elbow.

Dorsiflexion: Ankle motion such that the foot and toes are moved away from the ground in an upward direction.

Dorsum: The back; the back or top surface of any part.

Dysfunction: Unable to function normally as a body organ or system.


Eccentric Muscle Action: An overall lengthening of the muscle as it develops tension and contracts to control motion performed by an outside force; often times referred to a "negative" contraction in weight training.

Ecchymosis: Bleeding into the surface tissue below the skin, resulting in a "black and blue" effect.

Ectomy: Suffix indicating surgical removal of the affected part (e.g. appendectomy).

Edema: Accumulation of fluid, in organs and tissues of the body; swelling.

Efferent: Away from, pushing away from the center.

Effusion: Accumulation of fluid, or the fluid itself contained within a joint space.

Electrolyte: Ionized salts in blood, tissue fluids and cells, including salts of sodium, potassium and chlorine.

Electrolyte Drink: Fluid for replacing electrolytes, such as Gatorade Thirst Quencher.
Epicondylitis: Inflammation of a bony prominence over a condyle, often in the elbow due to overuse.

Ethyl Chloride: "Cold Spray" a chemical coolant sprayed onto an injury site to produce a local, mild anesthesia.

Eversion: Action of the ankle turning outward.

Extension: Action of straightening of a joint as achieved by an extensor muscle.

External Rotation: Rotational lateral movement of a joint or extremity to the outside.

Extremities: all four arms and legs

Extrinsic: From the outside, outside of.


Facet Joint: The small joints connecting vertebrae of the spine on the posterior of the vertebrae.

Fascia: A connective tissue sheath consisting of fibrous tissue that unites the skin to the underlying tissue ad compartmentalizes the inside of the body

Fat Percentage: The amount of body weight that is adipose, fat tissue. Fat percentages can be calculated by underwater weighing, BodPod, measuring select skin fold thickness, or by analyzing electrical impedance.

Femur: Thigh bone; longest bone in the body.

Fibula: Smaller of the two bones in the lower leg; runs from knee to the ankle along the outside of the lower leg.
Flexibility Exercise: General term used to describe exercise performed to passively or actively elongate soft tissue with the goal of a permanent gain in extensibility of the tissue.

Flexion: Motion of bending a joint as achieved by a flexor muscle.

Fracture: Break in continuity of bone. Types of fractures include simple, compound, comminuted, greenstick, incomplete, impacted, longitudinal, oblique, stress or transverse.

Frostbite: Damage to the tissues from exposure to temperature below 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 degrees C). An initial pins and needles sensation is followed by numbness. After that, the skin appears white, cold and hard, and finally becomes red and swollen.


Gait: refers to the individual way a person normally walks or runs

Gamekeeper's Thumb: Tear of the ulnar collateral ligament of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb.

Glenohumeral: The shoulder joint; consists of the glenoid cavity, deepened by the glenoid labrum and the head of the humerus. This type of joint is a "ball and socket" joint.

Glenoid: Cavity or socket of the scapula into which the head of the humerus fits to the form the shoulder girdle.

Glucose: A simple sugar found in the blood, all of carbohydrate and part of fat can be changed by the body into glucose. It is the body's main source of energy; also known as dextrose.

Glycogen: Stored form of carbohydrate in the liver and muscles. Glycogen is the chief source of stored fuel in the body.

Grade One Injury: A mild injury in which ligament, tendon, or other musculoskeletal tissue may have been stretched or contused, but not torn or otherwise disrupted.

Grade Two Injury: A moderate injury when musculoskeletal tissue had been partially, but not totally torn which causes appreciable limitation in function of the injured tissue.

Grade Three Injury: A severe injury in which tissue has been significantly, and in some cases totally, torn or otherwise disrupted causing a virtual total loss of function.

Groin: Junction of the thigh and abdomen; location of muscles that rotate, flex and adduct the hip.

Guarding: Involuntary local reflex ("protective") muscle contraction in the region of an area of injury.


Hammer Toe: Condition when the first digit of a toe angles up compared to the remaining digits of the same toe.

Hamstring: muscle group that runs from the buttocks to the knee along the back of the thigh. It functions to flex the knee, and is often times injured as a result of improper conditioning or lack of muscle flexibility. The specific muscles of the group are the semitendonosus, semimembranosus and the biceps femoris.

Heat Cramps: Painful muscle spasms of the arms or legs caused by excessive body heat and depletion of fluids and electrolytes.

Heat Exhaustion: Mild form of shock due to dehydration because of excessive sweating when exposed to heat and humidity.

Heat Stroke: Condition of rapidly rising internal body temperature that overwhelms the body's mechanisms for release of heat and could result in death if not cared for appropriately.

Heel Cup: Orthotic device that is inserted into the shoe and worn under the heel to give support and help absorb impacts at the heel.

Hemarthrosis: Accumulation of blood within a joint as a result of an acute injury.

Hematoma: Tumor-like mass-produced by an accumulation of coagulated blood in a cavity.

Hemorrhage: To bleed.

Herniate: To protrude through an abnormal body opening.

Hip: joint formed by the upper end of the femur and the socket of the pelvis, called the acetabulum

Hip Flexors: A group of muscles in front of the hip that begin off of the lumbar spine and pelvis and attached to the femur. Their action is to raise the leg towards the chest as well as increase lumbar spine lordosis.

Hip Pointer: Contusion to the iliac crest.

Humerus: Bone of the upper arm that runs from the shoulder to the elbow.

Hyaline Cartilage: Most common type of cartilage.

Hydrotherapy: Treatment using water.

Hyperextension: extension of a limb or body part beyond the baseline mark of 0 degrees.


Ice Massage: A block of ice formed into a paper cup rubbed on an injury in a massaging action to achieve a level of numbness.

Iliac Crest: Lateral edge of the hip; generally the site of a hip pointer.

Iliotibial Band (ITB): A thick, wide fascial layer that runs from the iliac crest to the knee joint and is occasionally inflamed as a result of excessive running.

Impingement Syndrome: Pinching together of the supraspinatus muscle and other soft tissue in the shoulder under the bony roof formed by the clavicle and acromion.

Inferior: Anatomically beneath, lower, or toward the bottom.

Inflammation: The body's natural response to injury in which the injury site might display various degrees of pain, swelling, heat, redness and/or loss of function.

Infraspinatus: A rotator cuff muscles that produces external rotation of the shoulder.

Insidious Onset: no apparent, specific point in time cause of symptoms

Intermittent Compression Pump: Therapeutic modality that uses an air pump to send air into a sleeve worn over an injury, on an intermittent basis, in order to disperse edema and break up swelling at the injury.

Internal Rotation: Rotation of a joint of extremity medially, to the inside.

Interosseus Membrane: Uniting membrane between the tibia and fibula that forms fibrous tissue sheath. It has two functions: to serve as an origin for many of the muscles of the lower leg, and to transmit stress from the tibia to the fibula. Also present between the radius and ulna in the forearm

Intrinsic: Inherent or inside.

movement of the foot and ankle in towards the midline

Iontophoresis: The use of constant direct current to drive heavy metal ions into and through the skin. Frequently used to drive an anti-inflammatory.

Isokinetic Exercise: Form of active resistive exercise in which the speed of limb movement is controlled by a pre-set limiting machine, such as Cybex or Biodex.

Isometric Muscle Action: Muscular contraction in which tension is developed but no mechanical work is done. There is no appreciable joint movement and the overall length of the muscle stays the same.

Isotonic Contraction: A concentric or eccentric muscular contraction that results in movement of a joint or body part, as in lifting a weight.

"Itis": Suffix connoting inflammation (e.g. tendonitis, bursitis).


Joint: The point of juncture between two or more bones where movement occurs.

Joint Mobilization: Passive traction and/or gliding movements applied to joint surfaces that maintain or restore the joint play normally allowed by the capsule, so that the normal roll-slide joint mechanisms can occur within the joint.


Ketone: A break-down product of fat that accumulates in the blood as a result of inadequate insulin or inadequate calorie intake.

Ketosis: A condition of having ketone bodies build up in body tissues and fluids. The signs of ketosis are nausea, vomiting, and stomach pain. Ketosis can lead to ketoacidosis.

Kyphosis: Excessive curvature of the upper spine, resulting in humpback, hunchback or rounding of the shoulders.


Labrum: The cartilage rim around a joint socket to deepen the socket and increase joint congruency, found in the glenoid of the shoulder and acetabulum of the hip.

Lateral: To the outside of the body.

Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL): Ligament along the outside or lateral aspect of a joint that connects the bones that form the joint. It provides lateral stability to the joint.

Lateral Epicondyle: boney prominence on the tip on a condyle on the outside of a joint

LDL Cholesterol: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol provides cholesterol for necessary body functions, but in excessive amounts it tends to accumulate in artery walls; known as "bad" cholesterol.

Lesion: Wound, injury or tumor.

Ligament: Band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone or bone to cartilage and supports and strengthens joints, guiding normal motion and preventing abnormal motion.

Lordosis: The normal arching forward of the lumbar spine in normal posture

Lumbar Spine: Five vertebrae of the lower back that articulate with the sacrum to form the lumbosacral joint.
Lumbar Vertebrae: Five vertebrae of the lower back that articulate with the sacrum to form the lumbosacral joint.

Lumbosacral: Region of low back comprised of lumbar and sacral spine.

Lungs: The two organs of respiration that bring air and blood into close contact so that oxygen can be added to and carbon dioxide removed from the blood.

Lymphatic system: The tissues and organs that produce, store, and carry cells that fight infection. This system includes the bone marrow, spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, and vessels that carry lymph.


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Imaging procedure in which a radio frequency pulse causes certain electrical elements of the injured tissue to react to this pulse and through this process a computer display and permanent film establish a visual image. MRI does not require radiation and is very useful in the diagnosis of soft tissue, disc and meniscus injuries.

Malleolus: Rounded projection on either side of the ankle joint; the lateral malleolus is the fibula and the medial Malleolus is the tibia.

Mallet Finger: Injury of the finger tip in which the extensor tendon is avulsed off the distal phalanx preventing the finger tip from being extended

Maximal Aerobic Power (MAX VO2): The maximal volume of oxygen consumed per unit of time.

Medial: To the inside of the body.

Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL): Ligament of along the medial aspect of a joint connecting the two bones and providing medial stability to the joint.

Menisectomy: An intra-articular surgical procedure of the knee by which all or part of the damaged meniscus is removed.

Meniscus: Crescent shaped fibro cartilage, usually pertaining to the knee joint; also known as "cartilage." There are two menisci in the knee, medial and lateral. These work to absorb weight within the knee, provide stability and increase joint congruency.

Metacarpals: Five long bones of the hand, running from the wrist to the fingers.

Metatarsals: five long bones of the foot, running from the ankle to the toes.

Morton's Neuroma: Involves the nerves and is usually the result of a trauma to the foot, causing inflammation and sharp pain, usually between the third and fourth toes.

Morton's Toe: A hereditary condition in which the second toe is longer than the first toe.

Muscle: Body tissues, which consist of cells that contract when, lengthened or straightened producing all movement of the body.

Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle.

Myositis Ossification: A benign ossification, usually following severe trauma to a large muscle mass.


N.A.T.A.: National Athletic Trainers' Association. The certifying and governing body of the athletic training profession.

Necrotic: Relating to death of a portion of tissue.

Nerve: One or more fibers or bundles of fibers which form a part of a system in the body that conveys impulses of sensation, motion, etc., between the spinal cord or brain and other body parts.

Neuritis: Inflammation of a nerve.

Neurologist: A doctor who specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system

Neuromuscular: Pertaining to the nerves and muscles.

Neuron: A nerve cell.

Neuropathy: Group of symptoms caused by abnormalities in sensory or motor nerves. Symptoms include tingling and numbness in hands or feet, followed by gradually progressive muscular weakness. The three major forms of nerve damage are: peripheral neuropathy, autonomic neuropathy, and mononeuropathy. The most common form is peripheral neuropathy, which mainly affects the feet and legs.

Neurotransmitter: Chemicals that act as messengers between cells in the brain and nervous system; they transmit impulses across the gap from a neuron to another neuron, a muscle, or a gland.


Obesity: Obesity occurs when a person has too much body fat. Obesity is not the same as being overweight; a person is considered obese when they weigh 20% or more of the maximum desirable weight for their height.

Olecranon Process: Bony projection of the ulna at the tip of the elbow.

One Repetition Maximum: The maximum amount of weight that can be lifted in a particular exercise at one time. This is used as a strength testing technique.

Orthotic: Any device applied to or around the body in the care of physical impairment or disability, commonly used to control foot mechanics.

Osteochondritis Dessicans: A piece of bone and/or cartilage loosened from its attachment after trauma and a cause of a lesion.

Overuse Syndromes: A result of repetitive stress to body structures.

Osteomyelitis: An inflammatory disease of bone caused usually by infection with streptococcus or staphylococcus.

Osteoporosis: Loss of calcium and other substances from bones, causing bones to become weak and prone to fractures.

Oxidation: Combining a substance with oxygen.


Paresthesia: Sensation of numbness or tingling, indicating nerve irritation.

Patella: The kneecap.

Plantarflexion: movement of the foot at the ankle such that the toes and foot point down


Q-Angle: Normal angle of quadriceps relative to the patella. The normal angle for males is 10-15 degrees, females 15-20 degrees.

Quadriceps "Quads": A group of four muscles of the front thigh that run from the hip and form a common tendon at the patella; they are responsible for knee extension.


Radiography: Taking of x-rays.

Radiate: Pain that seems to travel from one point in the musculature to another. Which travels.

Radial pulse: Pulse felt at the wrist.

Radius: Forearm bone on the thumb side.

Raynaud's phenomenon: Changes in skin color due to spasm of small blood vessels especially with exposure to cold.

Reconstruction: Surgical rebuilding of a joint using natural, artificial or transplanted materials.

Reflex (deep tendon): Contraction of a muscle in response to tapping the tendon with a reflex hammer; it requires intact sensory nerve supply to transmit the stretching of receptors in the muscle, and intact motor nerve supply for the muscle to contract.

Referred Pain: Pain felt in an undamaged area of body away from the actual injury.

Resect: To cut off, or cut out, a portion of a structure of organ.

Risk Factor: A factor that increases the chance of developing or aggravating a condition.

Rotator Cuff: Comprised of four muscles in the shoulder area that can be irritated by overuse. The muscles are the supraspinatus (most commonly injured), infraspinatus, teres minor and subscapularis.

Rotator Cuff Impingement Syndrome: A mircotrauma or overuse injury caused by stress. The four stages are: 1) tendonitis/tendonopathy with temporary thickening of the bursa and rotator cuff, 2) fiber dissociation in the tendon with permanent thickening of the bursa and scar formation, 3) a partial rotator cuff tear of less than 1 cm, and 4) a complete tear of 1 cm or more.


SC Joint: Sternoclavicular joint; articulation of the collarbone with the sternum.

Sacroiliac Joint: Junction of the sacrum with the hip bone.

Sacrum: Group of five fused vertebrae located just below the lumbar vertebrae of the low back.

Scapula: Shoulder blade.

Scapulothoracic Joint: Joint formed between the underside of the scapula and the back of the rib cage. Though not a “true” joint it is responsible for 30-40% of your overall shoulder motion

Sciatica: Irritation of the sciatic nerve resulting in pain or tingling running down the back of the leg.

Sciatic Nerve: Major nerve that carries impulses for muscular action and sensations between the low back and thigh and lower leg; it is the longest nerve in the body.

Shin Splint: A catchall syndrome describing pain in the shin that is not a fracture or tumor and cannot be defined otherwise. Often referred to as medial tibial stress syndrome

Soft Corn: A corn, softened by moisture that is found beneath the toes rather than on the upper surface of the toe.

Spinous Process: A small projection off the posterior portion of each vertebrae that functions as an attachment site for muscles or ligaments of the spine.

Spleen: Large, solid organ responsible for the normal production and destruction of blood cells.

Spondylitis: Inflammation of one or more vertebrae.

Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of one vertebrae over another below it due to a developmental defect in the vertebrae.

Abnormal vertebral fixation or immobility.

Sports Psychology: A science that deals with the mental and emotional aspects of physical performance.

Sprain: Injury resulting from the stretch or twist of the joint and causes various degrees of stretch of tear of a ligament or other soft tissue at the joint.

Sternum: The breastbone.

Sternoclavicular (SC) joint: Articulation of the collarbone(clavivle) with the sternum.

Steroids: Any one of a large number of hormone-like substances.

Stress Fracture: A hairline type of break in a bone caused by overuse.

Subscapilaris: A rotator cuff muscles that produces internal rotation of the shoulder.

Supraspinatus: A rotator cuff muscles that produces external rotation of the shoulder

Syndesmosis ligament: The ligament that connects the lower end of the tibia and fibula together. Is frequently injured during a high ankle sprain


Talus: The ankle bone that articulates with the tibia and fibula to form the ankle joint.

Target Heart Rate: A pre-determined pulse to be obtained during exercise when circulation is working at full efficient capacities.

Tarsals: Group of seven bones of the foot consisting of the calcaneus, navicular, talus, cuboid and three cuneiform bones.

Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ): The articulation of the jaw and skull

Tendonitis: Inflammation of the tendon and/or tendon sheath, caused by chronic overuse or sudden injury.

Tendon: Tissue that connects muscle to bone and transmits force undiminished.

Tendonopathy: Wear and tear of a tendon without any specific inflammation causing weakening of the tendon structure.

Tennis Elbow: General term for lateral elbow pain.

Tensor Fascia Latae (TFL): Muscle on the front outside of the hip that is a hip flexor and abductor. Connects to the illio tibial band

Terres Minor: A rotator cuff muscles that produces external rotation of the shoulder

Thermotherapy: Use of heat to treat a disease or disorder.

Thoracic: Group of twelve vertebrae located in the thorax and articulates with the twelve ribs.

Thoracic Outlet Compression Syndrome: Neuro-vascular disorders of the upper extremity do to either over stretch or compression of neurovascular structures.

Thoracic Spine:
Group of twelve vertebrae located in the thorax and articulates with the twelve ribs.

Tibia: Larger of the two bones of the lower leg and is the weight-bearing bone of the shin.

Trachea: The windpipe.

Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulator (TENS): An electrical modality that sends a mild current though pads at the injury site which stimulates the brain to release the natural analgesic, endorphin.

Transverse Process: Small lateral projection off the right and left side of each vertebra that functions as an attachment site for muscles and ligaments of the spine.

Trapezius: Flat, triangular muscle covering the posterior surface of the neck and shoulder.

Triangular Fibro Cartilage Complex (TFCC): A connective tissue characterized by its nonvascularity and firm consistency; located on the little finger side of the wrist.

Triceps: Muscle of the back of the upper arm, primarily responsible for extending the elbow.


Ulna: Forearm bone that runs from the tip of the elbow to the little finger side of the wrist.

Ulnar Collateral Ligament: A band or sheet of fibrous tissue connecting two or more bones, cartilages or other structures, or serving as support for fasciae or muscles; located on the inside of the elbow. (Ligament that was replaced or repaired for the "Tommy John" surgery.)

Ulnar Nerve: Nerve in the elbow commonly irritated from excessive throwing.

Ultrasonography: Process by which the reflection of high-frequency sound waves is used to develop an image of a structure.

Ultrasound: An electrical modality that transmits a sound wave through an applicator into the skin to the soft tissue in order to heat the local area for relaxing the injured tissue and/or disperse edema.

Uric Acid: A by-product of purine metabolism related to the development of gout.


Valgus: Angling outward and away from the midline of the body.

Varus: Angling inward and toward the midline of the body.

Vasoconstriction: Decrease of local blood flow.

Vertebrae: Bony segments that make up the spinal column

Vital Signs: Respiration, heart rate and body temperature.

Vitamin: Any of many organic substances that are vital in small amounts to the normal functioning of the body. Vitamins are found in food, produced by the body, and manufactured synthetically; along with minerals, they are known as micronutrients.


Wheezing: A whistling noise in the chest which occurs during breathing when the airways are compressed.

Whirlpool: Water bath in which the water is propelled by air to produce a massaging therapeutic action.

"Wind Knocked Out": Syndrome describing a contraction of the abdominal nerve trunk, the solar plexus, as a result of an abdominal contusion.

Wrist: The junction between the two forearm bones (radius and ulna) and the eight wrist bones (trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate, pisiform, triquetral, lunate and scaphoid).


Zygoma: The cheekbone.



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